Gardner, Professor in Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate
School of Education, has demonstrated that thre are multiple types of
human intelligence. During the second half of the twentieth century, he
developed his theory of multiple intelligences.
Gardner redefined how educators should think about intelligence, and he
influenced how curriculum and instruction should be thought of to meet
the learning needs of all students.
In the 1960s, Jerome Bruner, psychologist and educator, studied and wrote
about perception, learning, memory, and cognition in young children. Bruner
describes learning as an active process, in which the learner is the transformer
of existing ideas and concepts into new knowledge.
of Project Based Learning
Elements of PBL:
According to The Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project:
"Project-based learning (PBL) is a model for classroom activity that
shifts away from the classroom practices of short, isolated, teacher-centered
lessons and emphasizes, instead, learning activities that are long-term,
interdisciplinary, student-centered, and integrated with real world issues
Project-based learning requires students to learn skills by completing
individual and team projects.
It is an instructional strategy and not a curriculum. Michael Simkin,
Director of the Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project, defines project-based
learning as, "a method of teaching in which students acquire new
knowledge and skills in the course of designing, planning, and producing
a multimedia project."
The Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project identifies seven elements, or dimensions
of project-based learning supported by multimedia. These elements, listed
below, are explained in detail at: http://pblmm.k12.ca.us/PBLGuide/WhyPBL.html
learning (PBL) is a model for classroom activity that shifts away from the
classroom practices of short, isolated teacher-centered lessons, and emphasizes
instead, learning activities that are long-term, interdisciplinary, student-centered,
and integrated with real world issues and practices.
Higher Order Thinking Skills
As we develop curriculum for our students we will want to promote critical
thinking and higher order thinking skills. Bloom's Taxonomy is a useful
tool to help make sure we are extending our student's thinking skills.
All too often curriculum can be aimed just at the two lower thinking skills
of recall and comprehension. Project based learning with technology integration
allows us to foster the four higher order skills of application, anyalysis,
synthesis and evaluation. Take some time to look over the following chart
and task wheel:
Now think about the project you are developing for your students. How
does your project address the higher order thinking skills? Did you find
any ideas that will help you encourge your student's to use their higher
The SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) suggests
that in order for our students to successfully enter the work force they
need to develop the following critical thinking skills:
A. Creative Thinking--generates new ideas
B. Decision Making--specifies goals and constraints, generates alternatives,
considers risks, and evaluates and chooses best alternative
C. Problem Solving--recognizes problems and devises and implements plan
D. Seeing Things in the Mind's Eye--organizes, and processes symbols,
pictures, graphs, objects, and other information
E. Knowing How to Learn--uses efficient learning techniques to acquire
and apply new knowledge and skills
F. Reasoning--discovers a rule or principle underlying the relationship
between two or objects and applies it when solving a problem.
This list is taken from : http://www.academicinnovations.com/report.html
As you think about the project you are developing, consider how you are
developing the SCANS Thinking Skills in your students.